jueves, 31 de julio de 2014

Arrabales de Venecia

Arrabales de Venecia

A Media History of Documents

Including a history of blank forms... Mallarmé's dream Livre not included.


The Story behind any Story - The Paris lecture

Sur les quais

The Story behind any Story:

The Paris Lecture

Reference Info: Lecture at the 3rd Conference of the European Narratology Network, Université Internationale de Paris, 28-30 March 2013

This paper/lecture is now online at the SSRN, and has been accepted by a number of thematic journals (Date posted: August 02, 2014).


eJournal Classifications
AARN Subject Matter eJournals
AARN Subject Matter eJournals
CSN Subject Matter eJournals
CSN Subject Matter eJournals
CSN Subject Matter eJournals
CSN Subject Matter eJournals
CSN Subject Matter eJournals
PRN Subject Matter eJournals

Here a couple of videos from the CRAL's channel, with my lecture at the Université Internationale de Paris.

A longer paper based on the lecture will be published by the Amsterdam International Journal of Cultural Narratology some time this year.


Narración, Identidad, Interacción—Relectura

lunes, 28 de julio de 2014

Interaction as reality-maintenance

Some notions on representation, interaction, discourse, and reality, from Berger & Luckmann's The Social Construction of Reality.

The social reality we inhabit must be constantly constructed and reconstructed and reproduced through socialization. Berger & Luckmann differentiate the primary socialization acquired in childhood, which gives the individual a social identity, and secondary socialization, e.g. education, professional training, etc., which gives the individual a number of roles in society, a profession or provisional identity which may be more or less fluid or permanent according to circumstances and social complexity.

The social reality is a system of institutions, externally speaking, but they must be interiorized by the individual to become a subjective reality—through a number of techniques. "The more these techniques make subjectively plausible a continuity between the original and the new elements of knoweldge, the more readily they acquire the accent of reality" (163); just as we build a second language knowledge on our mother tongue, we build secondary socializations on our primary socialization. In complex societies there is a socializing personnel (e.g. teachers) who may become significant others to the subject—especially if the secondary socialization requires intensity and dedication, a commitment of the self-identity so to speak. Socializing tasks vary much from one society to another, just as the distribution of knowledge.

Maintenance and Transformation of Subjective Reality.

"Since socialization is never complete and the contents it internalizes face continuing threats to their subjective reality, every viable society must develop procedures of reality-maintenance to safeguard a measure of symmetry between objective and subjective reality" (167)

"Primary socialization internalizes a reality apprehended as inevitable. This internalization may be deemed successful if the sense of inevitability is present most of the time, at least while the individual is active in the world of everyday life". There are the sinister psychological metamorphoses of reality threatening it, usually marginally; mental distortions of reality which must be kept under control in the individual's subjectivity. "There are also the more directly threatening competing definitions of reality that may be encountered socially" (167)—people living with other cultural assumptions, in another reality so to speak.

If a secondary socialization is to be strongly internalized, the socialization procedures (discipline, control, etc.) will have to be intensified and reinforced accordingly. (E.g. the military, the clergy...);

"the reality of everyday life maintains itself by being embodied in routines, which is the essence of institutionalization. Beyond this, howerver, the reality of everyday life is ongoingly reaffirmed in the individual's interaction with others. Just as reality is originally internalized by a social process, so it is maintained in consciousness by social processes. These latter processes are not drastically different from those of the earlier internalization. They also reflect the basic fact that subjective reality must stand in a relationship with an objective reality that is socially defined" (169).

So, reality (the human reality of individuals, projects, actions, institutions, customs, etc.) is made and remade through interaction—this much Berger & Luckmann share with other propounders of symbolic interactionism.  Reality is made (to put it otherwise) of a collectively sustained set of self-fulfilling expectations.

Due to their interactionalist account of socialization, Berger and Luckmann are ideally placed as major theorizers of what I used to call the relational self—the notion that the self is not a substance with a stable core but rather a dynamic system of social relationships—a structure defined by its position in a social network. We do not have social relationships; we are our social relationships, so to speak (if this does not account for the whole of the reality of the self it does place a useful focus on a side of the self that is usually neglected or ignored). Each of the people we meet has a corresponding relational reality, and brings to ours a partially alien world which partly defines ours. We inhabit, or construct, a differen reality (partly different, provisional, interactional) with each of the people we interact with. Especially with the most significant persons.

Significant people define your reality with you, and you define theirs. Which is why many communities don't find it advisable for their members to have significant relationships (marriage, love, friendship) with members of other communities holding different beliefs—inhabiting another reality, so to speak. A foreigner's look threatens the very core of reality, it is an intrusion from another dimension. "There is no salvation outside the Church" —a doctrinal point which is given a more general, and rather ironic, reading, by Berger and Luckmann.  Individuals may inhabit a fairly consistent reality, or experience tensions between different realities which assert their claims. "The individual then faces a problem of consistency, which he can, typically, solve either by modifying his reality or his reality-maintaining relationships" (170). E.g. accepting that one is a failure, or turning to other people that give back a more satisfying image of oneself and our activities.  Human realities only partially overlap, and that there is often a conflict of realities among diverse social groups; see e.g. my paper on the battle for reality between the Gnostics and the early Christians, as portrayed in The Gospel of Judas ("La Visión del Templo: Espiritualidad antieclesiástica en el Evangelio de Judas y la Batalla por la Realidad"). There is a whole job of reality-management and reality-maintenance, especially in a globalized world in which different communities and different realities run into chaotic and absurd juxtapositions with each other:

"Reality-maintenance and reality-confirmation thus involve the totality of the individual's social situation, though the significant others occupy a privileged position in these processes" (Berger and Luckmann 171).

A continual interaction with significant others is thus the major vehicle for reality-management and reality maintenance. Conversation is singled out by Berger and Luckmann as the major mode of interaction (though love-making or sports can arguably be just as effective in many cases):

"The most important vehicle of reality-maintenance is conversation. One may view the individual's everyday life in terms of the working away of a conversational apparatus that ongoingly maintains, modifies, and reconstructs his subjective reality" (172)—conversation surrounded by non-verbal communication, and taking place "against the background of a world that is silently taken for granted" (172). One could thus modify Berger and Luckmann's account by saying that it is shared expectations or presuppositions (on which conversation rests, and which conversation helps to manage or modify) that constitute the most important tool of reality maintenance. Reality sustained by mental communication, then, of which actions and words only minimally modify the surface.  Casual conversation is then a crucial sign that the world stands in its place and is what it is; "its massivity is achieved by the accumulation and consistency of casual conversation—conversation that can afford to be casual precisely because it refers to the routines of a taken-for-granted world. The loss of casualness signals a break in the routines and, at least potentially, a threat to the taken-for-granted reality" (172). What is voiced out is singled out for attention; "conversation gives firm contours to items previously apprehended in a fleeing and unclear manner. One may have doubts about one's religion; these doubts become real in a quite different way as one discusses them." (173).

Conversations must be managed—Berger & Luckmann mention conversations through correspondence when physical conversations are not possible. "On the whole, frequency of conversation enhances its reality-generating potency, but lack of frequency can sometimes be compensated for by the intensity of the conversation when it does take place. One may see one's lover only once a month, but the conversation then engaged in is of sufficient intensity to meke up for its relative infrequency" (174).

One might as well note, too, the importance of reading as world-making conversation, reading (literature, philosophy, science, etc.), interacting with the dead, or with communities and worlds far away in time or space, sometimes to find a loophole to gaze out of the reality defined and circumscribed by our everyday life and by the conversation of our significant others, or, again, turning people living long ago and far away into our significant others. One might also expand on the prominent role of telephones and communication technologies in the present, as reality-management and reality-producing media.

Thus individuals manage their identities and realities, even when they are cut off from daily conversation with their reality-sustaining community. Rituals may be engaged in to keep this contact and prop up this reality. The "plausibility structures" as they are termed by Berger & Luckmann may become threatened and it is then that reality-sustaining strategies become more active and visible:

"In crisis situations the procedures are essentially the same as in routine maintenance, except that reality-confirmations have to be explicit and intensive. Frequently, ritual techniques are brought into play." (175). Taboos, exclusions, scapegoats, curses and exorcisms, etc. are used to sustain the official reality. "The violence of these defensive procedures will be proportional to the seriouness with which the threat is viewed" (176).

An extreme case noted by Berger and Luckmann is "world-switching" or conversion—when an individual leaves behind an old identity and its associated reality, and is "born again" into a new identity, often with the guide of significant others in the new sphere. "These significant others are the guides into the new reality. They represent the plausibility structure in the roles they play vis-à-vis the individual (roles that are typically defined explicitly in terms of their re-socializing function), and they mediate the new world to the individual (177). Religious conversion (Saul into Paul) is the model instance of such reality-switching. "The plausibility structures of religious conversion have been imitated by secular agencies of alternation. The best examples are in the areas of political indoctrination and psychotherapy" (178). Correspondingly, the reality-switching individual cuts off the ties and conversation with the old social sphere and previous significant others; "The alternating individual disaffiliates himself from his previous world and the plausibility structure that sustained it, bodily if possible, mentally if not" (178)—"Once the new reality has congealed, circumspect relations with outsiders may again be entered into, although those outsiders who used to be biographically significant are still dangerous. They are the ones who will say, 'Come off it, Saul', and there may be times when the old reality they invoke takes the form of temptation.

"And in conversation with the new significant others subjective reality is transformed. It is maintained by continuing conversation with them, or within the community they represent. Put simply, this means that one must now be very careful with whom one talks. People and ideas discrepant with the new definitions of reality are systematically avoided" (177-78).

One must be careful with what one reads, too, and with the films and TV programmes one watches. Representations of reality make and remake reality, and they sustain it all day long.

This analysis should be supplemented with a study of mechanisms of avoidance and coexistence—that is, communicative conventions and protocols which allow people to carry out interaction in some areas (e.g. work) with people sustaining other worlds or inhabiting other partial realities, without thereby challenging the hidden, private, different, eccentric or sacred aspects of their own reality. Thus it is advisable to avoid subjects such as politics, religion, etc. in casual conversation, especially if members of a minority creed are present. The weather is thus the safest interactional topic and the prime sustainer of the everyday reality we all share. Sports or celebrity TV are an area where conventional difference is encouraged, a symbol of those other differences which might threaten the plausibility of the world if they came into overt conflict. It is through heated differences on sporting matters that this issue is both recognized, hidden, and exorcized. Conversation on the weather and on sports and celebrities, which in their own ways are irrelevant topics, thus helps to sustain our sense of a coherent and shared social world.


Interaction as Reality-Maintenance en Ibercampus.

The Role of Synapses in Memory

De todo esto empezó a decir algo Ramón y Cajal hace ciento y pico años. Algo al respecto comentábamos en Redes neuronales y consciencia  y en Training the Train of Ideas.

Pronto estaremos listos para un tratamiento estilo Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind.

También estuve en Venecia

También estuve en Venecia

Citas de mi artículo de 1988

Hace más de 25 años escribí un artículo sobre The Mill on the Floss de George Eliot, y veo a través de Google Scholar que lleva adelante su mediocre carrerilla de artículo académico; además de aquí, lo citan otros cuatro autores, tres si consideramos que Kathleen Blake lo cita dos veces.

Blake, Kathleen. "Between Economies in the Mill on the Floss: Loans Versus Gifts, or, Auditing Mr. Tulliver's Accounts." Victorian Literature and Culture 33.1 (2005): 219-237.
Blake, Kathleen. Pleasures of Benthamism: Victorian Literature, Utility, Political Economy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009.* Preview at Google Books:
Sandler, Sergeiy. "The Kierkegaardian Sources of Bakhtin's Philosophical Motivation." Fourteenth International Bakhtin Conference 2011 (U of Bologna,  4-8 July 2011).
Wen, Pi-ch'un. (Department of Applied Foreign Languages, Nanya Institute of Technology). "Challenges, Struggle, Compromise: A Sociological Reading of George Eliot's The Mill on the Floss." South Asian Journal 25 (2005). Taoyuan Tech Institutional Repository (2011).

Teniendo en cuenta que la mayoría de los artículos académicos (la mayoría de los míos desde luego) nunca llega a citarlos nadie, muchas veces ni a leerlos... no lleva éste mala carrera. 

También apareció como un capítulo en esta colección de artículos sobre George Eliot:

domingo, 27 de julio de 2014

Lili Marleen

En la serie "mis vídeos olvidados"...

Tu sei qui

Tu sei qui

Between Orality and Literacy

Citan mi libro Acción, Relato, Discurso en el libro  

Between Orality and Literacy: 
Communication and Adaptation in Antiquity. 

Ed. Ruth Scodel. (Orality and Literacy in the Ancient World, 10). Leiden: Brill, 2014.

En concreto en el capítulo de Lourdes García Ureña, 

"The Book of Revelation: A Written Text towards the Oral Performance", 309-30.

Hay una vista previa en red en Google Books

The essays in Between Orality and Literacy address how oral and literature practices intersect. Their topics range from Homer and Hesiod to the New Testament and Gaius’ Institutes, from epic poetry and drama to vase painting, historiography, mythography, and the philosophical letter.

Bibliografía de Julia Kristeva

La gente sigue succionando pequeños archivos de mi bibliografía http://bit.ly/abiblio, mientras las visitas de ésta por la puerta principal van bajando en suave pendiente.... hasta extremos antes insospechados.

Chapa veneciana

Chapa veneciana

sábado, 26 de julio de 2014

Curso de paleontología en Dinópolis, y otras antigüedades

Ya tenemos a Álvaro de vuelta, recogido en Redondela, después de haber hecho en Dinópolis este curso de abajo. Se había lesionado un poco la cadera excavando unos huesos de dinosaurio anteayer. Y aún le ha tocado hoy (día de mucho calor) explorar unos castros prehistóricos (de los atlantes Atlánticos, que diría Sánchez Dragó) en la punta de un Peneiro perdido en el monte. Donde hemos visto un círculo perfecto en la piedra, quizá petroglifo. Y luego visitar el castillo de Sotomayor, del condottiero Pedro Madruga, para algunos alias Cristóbal Colón gallego. Luego hemos dado una vuelta al fondo de la ría de Vigo en Arcade y Pontesampaio, y vuelta a casa, de momento.

Me he cargado las cuerdas de la guitarra, tanto darle al guitarreo junto al mar. A ver si les busco repuesto pronto.

Aquí el curso de dinosaurios, que ha sido todo un éxito, con hallazgos incluidos:

XIII Curso de Paleontología y desarrollo. Prácticas en excavación de dinosaurios
Fechas: 21 al 25 de julio Horas: 40
Sede: Campus Universitario de Teruel
Dirección: D. Luis Alcalá Martínez. Director Gerente de la Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis

Secretaría: D. Alberto Cobos Periáñez. Paleontólogo. Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis.

D. Luis Alcalá Martínez. Director del curso.
D. Alberto Cobos Periáñez. Secretario del curso.
D. Rafael Royo Torres. Paleontólogo. Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis.
D. Eduardo Espílez Linares. Paleontólogo. Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis.
D. Luis Mampel Laboira. Paleontólogo. Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis.
Dña. Ana González Tomás. Paleontóloga. Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis.

La Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis considera la difusión de la Paleontología como uno de sus objetivos fundamentales, por lo que pretende hacer llegar a todos los públicos la historia de la vida en la Tierra. La propuesta que se presenta a la Comisión Académica consiste en la continuación de un curso que pretende afianzar el hecho de que Teruel se convierta en foro de investigación, conservación y puesta en valor de los recursos paleontológicos de la provincia.

Los ecosistemas mesozoicos continentales a través de los dinosaurios de la Comarca Gúdar-Javalambre.
Dinosaurios en las entrañas del Museo Aragonés de Paleontología.
Prospección y excavación paleontólogica.

Horarios del curso:
Día 21 de julio, lunes

9:00 h-11:00 h. Recogida de documentación.
11:00 h-11:30 h. Presentación del curso. Dr. Alberto Cobos Periáñez.
11:30-13:30 h. Los ecosistemas mesozoicos continentales a través de los dinosaurios de la Comarca Gúdar-Javalambre (Teruel). D. Alberto Cobos Periáñez.

En Dinópolis-Teruel
16:00-18:00 h. Dinosaurios en las entrañas del Museo Aragonés de Paleontología.
D. Eduardo Espílez
18:00-18:15 h. Descanso.
18:15-20:15 h. Taller sobre técnicas de preparación paleontológica en macrovertebrados. Dña. Ana González Tomás.

Día 22 de julio, martes

En El Castellar (a 40 km de Teruel)
8:30h-9:00 h. Viaje a El Castellar desde Teruel.
9:00-13:30 h. Recorrido por los ecosistemas continentales mesozoicos a través de los dinosaurios de El Castellar. D. Alberto Cobos Periáñez y D. Rafael Royo-Torres.
13:30-15:00 h. Comida.
15:00-16:00 h. Los dinosaurios saurópodos. D. Rafael Royo Torres.

16:00-19:00 h. Prospección y excavación paleontólogica. Dr. Alberto Cobos Periáñez y Dr. Rafael Royo-Torres.
19:00-19:30 h. Vuelta a Teruel.

Día 23 de julio, miércoles

En El Castellar (a 40 km de Teruel)
8:30-9:00 h. Viaje a El Castellar desde Teruel.
9:00-13:30 h. Prospección y excavación paleontólogica. Dr. Alberto Cobos Periáñez, Dr. Rafael Royo-Torres.
13:30h-15:00h Comida

15:00-16.00 h. Técnicas cartográficas en los yacimientos de dinosaurios. D. Luis Mampel Laboira.
16:00-19:00 h. Prospección y excavación paleontólogica. Dr. Alberto Cobos Periáñez y Dr. Rafael Royo-Torres.
19:00-19:30 h. Vuelta a Teruel.

Día 24 de julio, jueves

En El Castellar (a 40 km de Teruel).
8:30-9:00 h. Viaje a El Castellar desde Teruel.
9:00-13:30 h. Prospección y excavación paleontólogica. Dr. Alberto Cobos Periáñez y Dr. Rafael Royo-Torres.
13:30-15:00 h. Comida.

15:0016.00 h. Los últimos hallazgos de dinosaurios en la provincia de Teruel. D.  Luis Alcalá Martínez.
16:00-19:00 h. Prospección y excavación paleontólogica. D. Alberto Cobos Periáñez y D. Rafael Royo-Torres.
19:00-19:30 h. Vuelta a Teruel.

Día 25 de julio, viernes

En El Castellar (a 40 km de Teruel).
8:30-9:00 h. Viaje a El Castellar desde Teruel.
9:00-12:30 h. Prospeccióy excavación paleontólogica. D. Alberto Cobos Periáñez, D. Rafael Royo-Torres.
12:30-13:00 h. Entrega de diplomas.
13:30-14:00 h. Vuelta a Teruel.

Visita libre y por su cuenta a Dinópolis de aquellos interesados.


Aquí una noticia sobre el curso:

Algo pentecostal 2

Algo pentecostal 2

viernes, 25 de julio de 2014

Terrores metafísicos y otros problemas con la realidad

ship of reality
Entre los libros imprescindibles para conocer la estructura de la realidad, que no son tantos, suelo recomendar Frame Analysis de Goffman, o su Interaction Ritual o su Strategic Interaction, pero también The Social Construction of Reality, de Berger y Luckmann. Para mantener la realidad en estado puro es mejor no conocerla demasiado, sin embargo—son dos empresas divergentes, la de conocerla y la de mantenerla. Y las dos son todo un trabajo, pues ni se mantiene por sí sola—hay que apuntalarla constantemente con rituales y rutinas—ni desde luego se conoce por sí sola, que tiende a camuflarse detrás de esos rituales y rutinas y objetos cotidianos. Detrás de sí misma, por así decirlo. Berger y Luckmann señalan a la conversación como el instrumento más importante de mantenimiento de la realidad, pero en seguida vemos que no es tanto lo que se dice en la conversación como lo no dicho, las presuposiciones, lo que más contribuye a mantener la realidad. Es decir, que el conjunto de la realidad conspira para mantener la realidad, en sus lugares asignados. Sobre las presuposiciones y la realidad proyectada de antemano algo dije, a cuenta de Goffman, en este artículo sobre la realidad como expectativa autocumplida y el teatro de la interioridad. La vida cotidiana es de por sí tanto la realidad más accesible como el instrumento o técnica de mantenimiento de sí mimsa más eficaz. De Berger y Luckmann me llaman la atención hoy sus incursiones en las otras realidades marginales que rodean (y a la vez constituyen) a la vida cotidiana, extraña manera de constituirla, por el procedimiento de diferenciarse de ella. Quizá haya muchas personas sensibles a la inestabilidad o precariedad de la realidad, pero pocos autores lo son, o por lo menos no de esta manera tan reflexiva—las amenazas a la realidad, y los procedimientos para mantenerlas a raya, no suelen exponerse con tanta claridad como en este pasaje de La construcción social de la realidad:

As we have seen, the reality of everyday life maintains itself by being embodied in routines, which is the essence of institutionalization. Beyond this, however, the reality of everyday life is ongoingly reaffirmed in the individual's interaction with others. Just as reality is originally internalized by a social process, so it is maintained in consciousness by social processes. These latter processes are not drastically different from those of the earlier internalization. They also reflect the basic fact that subjective reality must stand in a relationship with an objective reality that is socially defined.
     In the social process of reality-maintenance it is possible to distinguish between significant others and less important others. In an important way all, or at least most, of the others encountered by the individual in everyday life serve to reaffirm his subjective reality. This occurs even in a situation as 'non-significant' as riding on a commuter train. The individual may not know anyone on the train and may speak to no one. All the same, the crowd of fellow-commuters reaffirms the basic structure of everyday life. By their overall conduct the fellow-commuters extract the individual from the tenuous reality of early-morning grogginess and proclaim to him in no uncertain terms that the world consists of earnest men going to work, of responsibility and schedules, of the New Haven Railroad and the New York Times. The last, of course, reaffirms the widest coordinates of the individual's reality. From the weather report to the help-wanted ads it assures him that he is, indeed, in the most real world possible. Concomitantly, it affirms the less-than-real status of the sinister ecstasies experienced before breakfast—the alien shape of allegedly familiar objects upon waking from a disturbing dream, the shock of non-recognition of one's own face in the bathroom mirror, the unspeakable suspicion a little later that one's wife and children are mysterious strangers. Most individuals susceptible to such metaphysical terrors manage to exorcize them to a degree in the course of their rigidly performed morning rituals, so that the reality of everyday life is at least gingerly established by the time they step out of their front door. But the reality begins to be fairly reliable only in the anonymous community of the commuter train. It attains massivity as the train pulls into Grand Central Station. Ergo sum, the individual can now murmur to himself, and proceed to the office wide-awake and self-assured.

E la nave va..

Peter Berger on the Resurrection of God

En la IPL2

Donde dice 20.000 léase 200.000, es una errata. Y ya son más de 300.000 a estas alturas. Aparte, está bien que mi bibliografía figure entre los recursos de literatura seleccionados para la Internet Public Library. No hay tantos, así que pantallazo:


Aún menos (23) hay en la sección de crítica literaria, y también estoy allí.  Y en la sección de lingüística, donde hay bastantes más (242).


jueves, 24 de julio de 2014

Aguas de Venecia

Aguas de Venecia

Aprendiendo a esconderse - Learning to Hide

Una lección básica sobre la teatralidad de la vida cotidiana. A truth of masks, o the role of roles, tal como se expone en The Social Construction of Reality, de Peter L. Berger y Thomas Luckmann.

Los roles sociales se basan en la socialización secundaria que sigue a la socialización primaria del individuo—a su adquisición de una identidad social y de un mundo en la niñez:

"La socialización secundaria es la internalización de 'sub-mundos' institucionalizados o basados en instituciones. Así pues, su extensión y su carácter quedan determinados por la complejidad de la división del trabajo y de la distribución social del conocimiento que va aparejada con ella" (1966: 158)

"Esto hace posible separar una parte del yo y la realidad que la acompaña para considerarlos relevantes sólo para la situación específica del papel que esté en cuestión. Así, el individuo establece una distancia entre su identidad total y la realidad que va con ella por una parte, y la identidad parcial específica del rol o papel, y su realidad, por otra. Este importante logro se vuelve posible sólo una vez ha tenido lugar la socialización primaria. Dicho en términos simplistas, es más fácil que el niño 'se esconda' de su maestro que de su madre. Y conversamente, podemos decir que el desarrollo de esta capacidad 'de esconderse'  es una parte importante del proceso de crecer y volverse adulto" (1966: 162)

Social roles are based on secondary socialization following the individual's primary acquisition of a social identity and a world in childhood:


"Secondary socialization is the internalization of institutional or institution-based 'sub-worlds'. Its extent and character are therefore determined by the complexity of the division of labour and the concomitant social distribution of knowledge" (1966: 158)

"This makes it possible to detach a part of the self and its concomitant reality as relevant only to the role-specific situation in question. The individual then establishes distance between his total self and its reality on the one hand, and the role-specific partial self and its reality on the other. This important feat is possible only after primary socialization has taken place. Put crudely once more, it is easier for the child 'to hide' from his teacher than from his mother. Conversely, it is possible to say that the development of this capacity 'to hide' is an important aspect of the process of growing into adulthood" (1966: 162)

The Passion — & San Servolo

Hace más de 20 años me citaba Susana Onega en este artículo sobre la novela de Jeanette Winterson The Passion:

Onega, Susana. "The Passion: Jeanette Winterson's Uncanny Mirror of Ink." Miscelánea 14 (1993): 113-30.

—curiosamente, en esa novela acaba uno de los protagonistas recluido en lo que en la novela se llama el manicomio veneciano de "St. Servelo"—para enfatizar el tema de la reclusión en el propio cerebro, supongo. The Passion me la leí hacia el año 91, creo. No sabía yo que también acabaría yo pasando una estancia en "the madhouse on the island". An enchanted island for the mad, the rich, the bored, the perverted.

—oOo—san servolo

Slowly the poison the whole blood stream fills.
It is not the effort nor the failure tires.
The waste remains, the waste remains and kills.

It is not your system or clear sight that mills
Down small to the consequence a life requires;
Slowly the poison the whole blood stream fills.

They bled an old dog dry yet the exchange rills
of young dog blood gave but a month's desires
The waste remains, the waste remains and kills.

It is the Chinese tombs and the slag hills
Usurp the soil, and not the soil retires.
Slowly the poison the whole blood stream fills.

Not to have fire is to be a skin that shrills.
The complete fire is death.  From partial fires
The waste remains, the waste remains and kills.

It is the poems you have lost, the ills
From missing dates, at which the heart expires.
Slowly the poison the whole blood stream fills.
The waste remains, the waste remains and kills.

(Empson, "Missing dates")


miércoles, 23 de julio de 2014

Thomas Reid on Personal Identity


Dan Robinson gives the sixth of eight lectures on Reid's critique of David Hume at Oxford. In the third of his "Essays on The Intellectual Powers of Man", Thomas Reid devotes the fourth chapter to the concept of 'identity', and the sixth chapter to Locke's theory of 'personal identity'. This latter chapter is widely regarded as a definitive refutation of the thesis that personal identity is no more than memories of a certain sort, less a "bundle of perceptions". As he says, "This conviction of one's own identity is utterly necessary for all exercise of reason. The operations of reason—whether practical reasoning about what to do or speculative reasoning in the building up of a theory—are made up of successive parts. In any reasoning that I perform, the early parts are the foundation of the later ones, and if I didn't have the conviction that the early parts are propositions that I have approved or written down, I would have no reason to proceed to the later parts in any theoretical or practical project whatever".

Under "David Hume", the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy begins with, "The most important philosopher ever to write in English". His most formidable contemporary critic was the fellow Scot, Thomas Reid, the major architect of so-called Scottish Common Sense Philosophy. The most significant features of Hume's work, as understood by Reid, are the representive theory of perception, the nature of causation and causal concepts, the nature of personal identity and the foundations of morality. Each of these topics is presented in a pair of lectures, the first summarizing Hume's position and the second Reid's critique of that position.


Nuestra traducción del discurso de recepción de premio Nobel de Harold Pinter apareció en varios sitios, y desapareció también de un par de ellos Ahora puede verse aquí:

García Landa, José Ángel, and Beatriz Penas Ibáñez, trans. "Arte, verdad y política." Nobel lecture by Harold Pinter. In Fírgoa: Universidade pública 9 Dec. 2005.
_____. "Arte, verdad, y política." Nobel lecture by Harold Pinter. Trans. José Ángel García Landa and Beatriz Penas Ibáñez. In García Landa, Vanity Fea 29 Dec. 2005:
_____. "Art, Truth, and Politics de Harold Pinter (2005): Traducción de un texto culturalmente relevante." From Transfer. Online at Raco.cat

Aquí hay otra traducción, en los subtítulos del vídeo en el que Pinter pronunció su discurso in absentia:

HERMENEUTICS (Richard E. Palmer)

Notes from

Interpretation Theory in Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Heidegger, and Gadamer

—a book by Richard E. Palmer (Evanston: Nortwestern UP, 1969)

Part I: On the Definition, Scope, and Significance of Hermeneutics; 
Part II: Four Major Theorists (Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Heidegger and Gadamer); 
Part III: A Hermeneutical Manifesto to American Literary Interpretation. 

Notes taken by José Angel García Landa.




3- The 'New Hermeneutic' is the dominant movement in Protestant theology in Europe (with Gerhard Ebeling). For Heidegger, philosophy should be 'hermeneutical'.

4- Hirsch proposes hermeneutics as a foundation for all literary interpretation. Palmer will provide here a general introduction to hermeneutics with a view to contribute to literary interpretation. Webster's definition: hermeneutics is "the study of the methodological principles of interpretation and exploration; specif.: the study of the general principles of biblical interpretation").

5- Palmer favours a phenomenological approach to interpretation.

Some Consequences of Common-Sense Objectivity in American Literary Criticism.

Suffering from naive realism, it thinks of the work as separate from one's perception or from the author's intention, as a 'being' in itself. "The preliminary separation of subject and object, so axiomatic in realism, becomes the philosophical foundation and framework for literary interpretation."

6- This may be fruitful but is questionable under phenomenological assumptions. Modern literary criticism imitates the scientist's approach; analysis and interpretation become synonymous [for the New Criticism - JAGL]. They denounce the affective fallacy and promote a technological approach to interpretation,

7- —but these promote the indifference to literature bewailed by the same critics. Cf. Merleau-Ponty's observation: "Science manipulates things and gives up living in them." Palmer: "Dialogue, not dissection, opens up the world of a literary work. Disinterested objectivity is not appropriate to the understanding of a literary work." We should see works as "humanly created texts which speak"; Palmer opposes Frye's 'anatomies' and advocates "a humanistic understanding of what interpretation of a work involves."

Literary Interpretation, Hermeneutics, and the Interpretation of Works

The work is not simply an "object". It is the work of a man or of God, and as such it needs to be seen as meaningful. "This 'deciphering' process, this 'understanding' the meaning of a work,
8- is the focus of hermeneutics. Hermeneutics is the study of understanding, especially the task of understanding texts." It is a humanistic and historical mode of understanding, beyond the (necessary) treatment of the work as object. Hermeneutics is not a set of devices, but an attention to (1) understanding a text, (2) the nature of understanding and interpretation. These are interacting foci in hermeneutics.

9- Existing is a constant process of interpretation. Interpretation exceeds linguistic interpretation; it is the basis of human interaction, more basic than language (although language is an essential element in human communication). Palmer favours a complex concept of interpretation in criticism. The work should be seen as a voice, not as an object—hearing it.

10- "understanding is both an epistemological and an ontological phenomenon"; understanding a work of literature is "an historical encounter which calls forth personal experience of being here in the world." "As a German current of thought, hermeneutics came to be profoundly influenced by German phenomenology and existential philosophy." Hermeneutics transcends disciplines: it is fundamental, more than interdisciplinary.  And it clarifies the nature and the task of the humanities.



_____. "Notes on Richard E. Palmer's Hermeneutics: Interpretation Theory in Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Heidegger and Gadamer." c. 1990. Online ed. at Net Sight de José Angel García Landa. 2014.*
_____. "Notes on Richard E. Palmer's Hermeneutics: Interpretation Theory in Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Heidegger and Gadamer." Academia.edu 15 Nov. 2014.*
_____. "Notes on Richard E. Palmer's Hermeneutics: Interpretation Theory in Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Heidegger and Gadamer." ResearchGate 16 Nov. 2014.*
         01/1990; DOI: 10.13140/2.1.2454.4963
_____. "Notes on Richard E. Palmer's Hermeneutics: Interpretation Theory in Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Heidegger and Gadamer." Humanities Commons 19 June 2018.*
_____. "Hermeneutics (Richard E. Palmer)." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 23 July 2014.*
_____. "Notes on Richard E. Palmer's Hermeneutics: Interpretation Theory in Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Heidegger and Gadamer." Humanities Commons 19 June 2018.*
_____. "Notes on Richard E. Palmer's Hermeneutics: Interpretation Theory in Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Heidegger and Gadamer." Social Science Research Network 11 July 2018.*
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Microblog de julio 2014

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31 jul 14, 17:51
Jose Angel: Viendo la playa de todos los veranos.
31 jul 14, 08:39
Jose Angel: Ya me he dado hoy el baño en la cala de mañana.
31 jul 14, 00:43
Jose Angel: Narración, identidad, interacción—Relectura: https://www.academia.edu/265840/
30 jul 14, 20:11
Jose Angel: La tragédie dans l'espace public antique: http://savoirs.ens.fr/expose.php?id=95
30 jul 14, 18:55
Jose Angel: Aquí estamos en Antropología Psicológica (Top Ten): http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/topten/topTenResults.cfm?groupingId=2352022&netorjrnl=jrnl
30 jul 14, 11:55
Jose Angel: El conflicto de Gaza en Radio Materialista: http://www.ivoox.com/radio-materialista-episodio-14-monografico-sobre-gaza-audios-mp3_rf_3360606_1.html
30 jul 14, 09:56
Jose Angel: Dedicado a las del 56: La vida es sólo fantasía: http://vanityfea.blogspot.com/2011/04/la-vida-es-solo-fantasia.html
29 jul 14, 22:21
Jose Angel: Me enlaza la bibliografía Richard Moye en Lyndon College, Vermont: http://campus.lyndonstate.edu/Faculty/rhm05280/research.html
29 jul 14, 00:40
Jose Angel: Viendo EL AMANECER DEL PLANETA DE LOS SIMIOS, una de indios.
28 jul 14, 17:23
Jose Angel: CARTA video on male aggression& evolution, resources & war, hunter-gatherers: http://youtu.be/2q3N5kainhw
28 jul 14, 11:06
Jose Angel: Esto viene de Mis Recomendaciones de Google. Activo también Mis Citas de Google (Scholar)).
28 jul 14, 11:05
Jose Angel: Ian Tattersall on the origin of Language: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0388000114000527
27 jul 14, 20:31
Jose Angel: Transatlánticos en Venecia: http://lamiradaindiscretafotoblog.blogspot.com.es/2014/07/transatlanticos-en-venecia.html
27 jul 14, 09:56
Jose Angel: Soy citado en Der Roman 2ª ed. de Christoph Bode: http://books.google.es/books?hl=en&lr=&id=szZzV5Q_AFoC
26 jul 14, 22:41
Jose Angel: Anthropólogo Top Ten: http://garciala.blogia.com/2014/072612-anthropologo-top-ten.php
25 jul 14, 08:22
Jose Angel: Nos van a acortar las carreras a tres años... otra manera de recortar el gasto en educación.
25 jul 14, 00:08
Jose Angel: Un tanto parado todo, estoy en el consejo asesor de esta revista de narratología: http://cf.hum.uva.nl/narratology/editorial.htm
24 jul 14, 06:58
Jose Angel: My recommendations from Google: http://scholar.google.com/scholar?sciupd=1&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&sciodt=0,5
23 jul 14, 19:37
Jose Angel: Aquí se absorben mi bibliografía sobre Hemingway: http://www.studymode.com/essays/Lost-Generation-530871.html
23 jul 14, 09:06
Jose Angel: El formalismo crítico académico durante las vanguardias (New Criticism y Chicago School): https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264118873
22 jul 14, 17:23
Jose Angel: Ricœur, la traduction comme herméneutique (audio) http://www.trensmissions.ens.fr/triptyques-philosophiques-paul-ricoeur-la-traduction-comme-hermeneutique/
22 jul 14, 15:17
Jose Angel: Mi bibliografía sobre literatura irlandesa: http://lib.znate.ru/docs/index-102521.html
22 jul 14, 14:03
Jose Angel: También hay separaciones por las amistades... Las parejas están en crisis.
22 jul 14, 14:02
Jose Angel: Se ha suicidado el padre de un alumno nuestro, no lo conocíamos. Lo terrible para la familia es interpretar las señales retrospectivamente.
21 jul 14, 14:57
Jose Angel: Amarrado al duro banco: http://tirardelengua.wordpress.com/2011/12/16/amarrado-al-duro-banco-de-luna-galera-turquesa/
21 jul 14, 14:56
Jose Angel: Visita sorpresa de Juan.
21 jul 14, 11:20
Jose Angel: Azar Gat, on the deep roots of nationalism and political ethnicity: http://newbooksinhistory.com/2013/04/09/azar-gat-nations-the-long-history-and-deep-roots-of-political-ethnicity-and-nationalism-camb
21 jul 14, 06:16
Jose Angel: Hoy apuntamos a remo a nuestros galeotillos. Con protestas al cómitre.
19 jul 14, 23:28
Jose Angel: Hoy excursión al Cabo Udra, a ver penas y penedos..
19 jul 14, 12:44
Jose Angel: TFGs. Los que yo dirijo hasta ahora no prosperan. http://blogs.uab.cat/saramartinalegre/2014/07/13/ba-dissertationstfgs-emotion-running-high/
19 jul 14, 12:43
Jose Angel: El avión derribado, los robos de UGT, los secesionistas catalanes... http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2014-07-18/tertulia-de-herrero-hasta-donde-hemos-llegado-que-se-vuela-un-avion-y-por-ah
19 jul 14, 09:53
Jose Angel: Estos piratillas pretenden vender mi bibliografía de Rousseau como si fuese una "disertación" http://www.etudier.com/dissertations/Rousseau-j-j/69433.html
19 jul 14, 09:38
Jose Angel: También salgo aquí. Programa del 3er congreso ENN en la Maison Française de Oxford: http://www.mfo.ac.uk/sites/default/files/posters/enn_2013_conference_booklet_11.pdf
19 jul 14, 09:21
Jose Angel: Aquí me enlazan en Falmouth University: http://professionalwriting.falmouth.ac.uk/research/content/view/30/60/
19 jul 14, 09:20
Jose Angel: Aquí aún consta que mi bibliografía indexaba ATLANTIS. Luego las editoras me suprimieron y dejaron de contestarme al correo, por motivos desconocidos: http://www.theasa.net/journals/name/atlantis/
19 jul 14, 09:08
Jose Angel: Завидую людям, у которых есть друзья детства, с которыми они многое прошли и остались вместе. ОСТАЛИСЬ ВМЕСТЕ.
18 jul 14, 18:55
Jose Angel: Giving advice on academic careers: http://blogs.uab.cat/saramartinalegre/2014/06/13/giving-advice-on-academic-careers-an-impossible-task/comment-page-1/#comment-5694
18 jul 14, 17:14
Jose Angel: Otra de Sheldon. "No se me ocurre una respuesta mordaz ahora, pero consulta tu correo y pronto la tendrás".
18 jul 14, 17:13
Jose Angel: Una de Sheldon; dice Howard: "Sheldon, te equivocas"; y Sheldon, "Howard, sabes que soy un tipo extremadamente inteligente. ¿No crees que si me equivocase lo sabría?"
18 jul 14, 16:51
Jose Angel: El mar cada momento es distinto—cada minuto. Ahora mismo se ha quedado absolutamente plano y sin olas.
18 jul 14, 11:29
Jose Angel: Qué cosas, se equivocaron otra vez las comisiones de cabezas pensantes al diseñar los grados: http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1407/140718_z0_EP16.pdf
18 jul 14, 10:13
Jose Angel: Muere Johnny Winter: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2014-07-17/cultura-fallece-johnny-winter-76509.html
17 jul 14, 18:43
Jose Angel: El origen maldito de la palabra 'trabajo' http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2014-07-16/palabrologia-el-origen-maldito-de-la-palabra-trabajo-76474.html
17 jul 14, 12:47
Jose Angel: I'm out of range.
16 jul 14, 09:16
JoseAngel: Me citan en THE VIDEO GAME THEORY READER, p. 130: http://books.google.es/books?id=ckKTAgAAQBAJ
15 jul 14, 21:34
Jose Angel: Aquí en un top ten de POLITICAL THEORY. Bah, ya me voy de vacaciones. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/topten/topTenResults.cfm?groupingId=999249&netorjrnl=jrnl
15 jul 14, 18:05
Jose Angel: Me citan (cum laude) en RESEARCH IN LANGUAGE: http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/rela.2012.10.issue-4/v10015-011-0039-4/v10015-011-0039-4.xml
15 jul 14, 13:26
JoseAngel: I Am Not at Rest: http://garciala.blogia.com/2014/071504-i-am-not-at-rest.php
15 jul 14, 01:18
Jose Angel: Facebook Facultad Filosofía y Letras Zaragoza: https://www.facebook.com/filosofiayletraszaragoza/timeline
15 jul 14, 01:08
Jose Angel: Introducción a la filosofía de la psiquiatría: http://moncayo.unizar.es/cv/cursosdeverano.nsf/CursosPorNum/35
15 jul 14, 00:29
Jose Angel: Catherine Belsey, Shakespeare's Philosophy: http://backdoorbroadcasting.net/2010/05/catherine-belsey-philosophy-or-theatre/
15 jul 14, 00:21
Jose Angel: Mariano, tortuga marina: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2014-07-14/resumen-de-prensa-podemos-seria-3-fuerza-76344.html
14 jul 14, 12:46
JoseAngel: Aragón pierde más de 100 investigadores al año: http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1407/140714_z0_EP13-1.pdf
13 jul 14, 11:00
Jose Angel: Starmania 1978: http://youtu.be/s34IXHe_e00
13 jul 14, 09:21
Jose Angel: Vini, vidi, abii.
13 jul 14, 09:19
Jose Angel: Allá donde fueres, haz según lo veas.
13 jul 14, 09:18
Jose Angel: El guapo, el feo y el otro. Qué horror de trío, el PSOE al sumidero ¡por fin!
13 jul 14, 00:50
Jose Angel: Hablando de minutos. Minuto 1.25.00. https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=UxqT1irEfMk
13 jul 14, 00:50
Jose Angel: Se acaban nuestros minutos en Zaragoza.
13 jul 14, 00:30
Jose Angel: Le han hecho volumen de homenaje a Socorro Suárez.
12 jul 14, 12:48
Jose Angel: Alan Macfarlane interviews historian Sir Brian Harrison: http://youtu.be/aazqSnw2Q08
12 jul 14, 12:46
Jose Angel: Radio Materialista sobre el aforamiento del ex-Rey y otros: http://www.ivoox.com/radio-materialista-episodio-11-ivan-velez-rodriguez-audios-mp3_rf_3267697_1.html
11 jul 14, 12:44
JoseAngel: Inflationary cosmology: http://youtu.be/4OinSH6sAUo
10 jul 14, 14:44
Jose Angel: La Universidad - ¿insostenible? http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1407/140710_z0_H20.pdf
9 jul 14, 20:57
Jose Angel: Vaya, veo que paso de 5000 entradas en este blog http://vanityfea.blogspot.com
9 jul 14, 18:45
Jose Angel: "El dividuo social: roles, marcos interaccionales y (nuevos) medios." Capítulo mío en Individuo y espacio público. Ed. Juan Velázquez. Berlin: Logos Verlag, 2014. 99-116. Soon in a bookstore near you
9 jul 14, 18:17
Jose Angel: Cervantes astrónomo: https://www.bbvaopenmind.com/en/an-astronomer-called-cervantes/
9 jul 14, 17:59
Jose Angel: Pelargonis Sandersi, la mayor ave voladora: http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1407/140708_z0_vangu28.pdf
9 jul 14, 17:57
Jose Angel: Habrá un museo de Ciencias Naturales en el Paraninfo: http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1407/140708_z0_4.pdf
9 jul 14, 15:51
Jose Angel: Monográfico sobre el aborto en Radio Materialista: http://www.ivoox.com/radio-materialista-episodio-12-monografico-sobre-aborto-audios-mp3_rf_3289181_1.html?autoplay=1
9 jul 14, 13:09
JoseAngel: PALA newsletter Spring 2005. We're out of time... http://www.pala.ac.uk/uploads/2/5/1/0/25105678/2005_spring.pdf
8 jul 14, 18:30
Jose Angel: Matemáticas e ingeniería financiera: http://youtu.be/HKy577PAMOc
7 jul 14, 13:33
Jose Angel: Buero Vallejo, La Fundación (TV2): http://youtu.be/2AsUQt4spdg
7 jul 14, 10:11
Jose Angel: Selection of videos from the 3rd ENN conference at Paris: http://www.narratology.net/node/134
6 jul 14, 23:01
Jose Angel: Geological Society @ YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/GeologicalSociety
6 jul 14, 23:00
Jose Angel: Por fin las notas de Alvaro son más mediocres de lo esperado. Bueno, notables.
6 jul 14, 15:33
Jose Angel: Daniel Innerarity, La Reinvención de lo privado: http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1407/140704_z0_pais31.pdf
6 jul 14, 10:45
Jose Angel: Net Sight de José Angel García Landa: http://www.unizar.es/departamentos/filologia_inglesa/garciala/index.html
5 jul 14, 20:50
Jose Angel: Jérôme Porée sur Ricœur, Le temps avant et après le récit: http://savoirs.ens.fr/expose.php?id=1165
5 jul 14, 20:37
Jose Angel: Aquí estrenando el Whatsapp en una conversación con mamá...
5 jul 14, 20:13
Jose Angel: Análisis del teatro (curso de verano UNED) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s2USRWOPGxk
5 jul 14, 12:55
Jose Angel: Aquí oyendo El Gato al Agua: http://www.gaceta.es/playlist-gato-al-agua
4 jul 14, 20:05
Jose Angel: Radio Materialista sobre Felipe VI: http://www.ivoox.com/radio-materialista-episodio-10-monografico-sobre-felipe-vi-audios-mp3_rf_3246684_1.html
4 jul 14, 18:17
Jose Angel: Hoy último consejo de departamento de este curso. Ramón Plo será el nuevo coordinador del Grado de Estudios Ingleses.
4 jul 14, 07:27
Jose Angel: Случайно узнал о книге с интересным названием, которое меня привлекло, сейчас я начал её читать и "Will" - увлекают меня
3 jul 14, 20:14
Jose Angel: Más de dos mil fotos de Venecia. Pronto, o tarde, en una pantalla cerca de Vd.
3 jul 14, 17:38
Jose Angel: Mis próximos 30 años: http://www.cesarvidal.com/index.php/Blog/ver-blog/mis_proximos_treinta_anos
2 jul 14, 19:13
Jose Angel: Futuro anterior... vaya horreur de pronósticos. http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1407/140702_z0_3.pdf
2 jul 14, 16:14
Jose Angel: Las notas que me ponen los estudiantes no son de tirar cohetes... pero en fin, tampoco lo son las suyas.
2 jul 14, 10:27
Jose Angel: На улице жара, дышать невозможно. Aquí dándole al ruso con Twitter y Google Translator. Lo dejé en el 87...
2 jul 14, 08:40
Jose Angel: Aquí sobre 'Miserias de la Guerra' de Baroja en Political Theory eJournals, a fecha 6 de junio: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/JELJOUR_Results.cfm?form_name=journalBrowse&journal_id=998970
1 jul 14, 21:53
Jose Angel: El discurso del premio Nobel de Pinter: http://www.ub.edu/cret_transfer/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=225&Itemid=123&lang=es
1 jul 14, 21:53
Jose Angel: Ya tengo docencia para el curso que viene: literatura inglesa y norteamericana, lit. inglesa XVII-XVIII, y teatro inglés.

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